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Protein Phosphorylation Tools


This page describes some tools freely available on the web to help identify potential and actual phosphorylation sites on proteins.


DescriptionA manually curated compendium of known protein phosphorylation sites provided by Cell Signalling Technology. Users can enter a protein name to search for known phosphorylation sites or alternatively search via a kinase of interest for known substrates.


DescriptionThis is a manually curated compendium of known protein phosphorylation sites. Users can enter a protein name in Uniprot format from and search for known phosphorylation sites with the option of filtering through an extensive list of kinases and/or binding motifs. The results are reported together with Swiss-Prot protein identification and Pub-Med reference links. Additional information can include the kinase, when known, and homology domains determined from SMART/Pfam. The current release (Version 5.0 May 2006) contains 2540 protein entries covering 7206 instances. Note that this search will not predict new potential phosphorylation sites.
References"Phospho.ELM: a database of experimentally verified phosphorylation sites in eukaryotic proteins." Diella F, Cameron S, Gemund C, Linding R, Via A, Kuster B, Sicheritz-Ponten T, Blom N, Gibson TJ. BMC Bioinformatics. 2004 Jun 22;5:79.

Netphos 2.0 Server

DescriptionThis is a neural network-based tool that scores potential phosphorylation sites in a probabilistic manner.
References"Sequence- and structure-based prediction of eukaryotic protein phosphorylation sites." Blom, N., Gammeltoft, S., and Brunak, S. Journal of Molecular Biology: 294: 1351-1362, 1999.

Netphosk 1.0 Server

DescriptionThis tool searches protein sequences for potential (predicted) kinase-specific phosphorylation sites based on neural network-derived kinase recognition consensus sequences. Users paste the protein sequence of interest in FASTA format, which can be obtained from the Uniprot database ( The kinases currently enabled for the search are: ATM CaM-II Cdc2 Cdk5 CKI CKII DNA EGFR Gsk3 INSR MAPK p38 PK PKA PKB PKC PKG RSK Src
References"Prediction of post-translational glycosylation and phosphorylation of proteins from the amino acid sequence." Blom N, Sicheritz-Ponten T, Gupta R, Gammeltoft S, Brunak S. Proteomics. 2004 Jun; 4:1633-49. Review.

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Protein Phosphorylation Tools